Glossary of Printing Terms

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  • August 9, 2016

Need to look up a printing term? It’s probably on our list:

 

Abrasion Resistance

The resistance to scratching or scuffing of a surface of paper.

 

Accordion Fold

A type of paper folding in which each fold of a brochure runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold of the brochure creating an accordion affect. Post Press has helped hundreds of customers with their accordion fold projects.

 

Acetate

A clear or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colors used as an overlay usually.

 

Additive Colors

In photographic reproduction the primary colors of red, green, and blue which are mixed to form all other colors. Also known as RGB.

 

Aerate

This refers to a process whereby air is blown onto paper sheets to separate the sheets.

 

Agate

Type size of 5 ½ points.

 

Airbrush

A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine mist of ink; used in illustration and photo retouching software to create effects.

 

Anodized Plate

In lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions that break down the plate; it provides optimum press performance and can carry very small dot %’s.

 

Antique Finish

Paper with a rough surface.

 

Antiskinning Agent

An antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning over in the can or on press.

 

Aqueous Coating

Water soluble coating that protects ink and enables quick handling of piece. Comes in gloss, satin, and dull-Usually done in-line.

 

Aqueous Plate

Water soluble plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting which enables quick handling of paper and high level of gloss.

 

Art Work

Any materials or images which are prepared for graphic reproduction and can be produced manually or by software.

 

Art-Lined Envelope

An envelope that is lined with fine paper; can be colored patterned or foiled.

 

Artwork

All illustrated material, photo and charts etc., that is prepare for reproduction which can be produced manually or by software.

 

Author or Customer Alterations (AA, CA’s)

Changes made after the proof stage where a customer is responsible for additional charges.

 

Back Lining

The fixing of material, either paper or cloth, to the inside of a book before it is bound. Can be colored, textured or finishes.

 

Back to Back

Printing applied to both side of a sheet of paper.

 

Backbone

The spine of the binding which connects the front of the book with the back of the book; also called back or spine. Need “perfect” perfect binding? Call Kansas City’s premier bindery, Post Press Specialties.

Background

Image that appears faintest and the type is usually printed over the background and used as effect.

 

Back slant

Type that tilts to the left of backward direction; opposite of italic type, which is to the right.

 

Banner

The top primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page. Used to draw eye or grab attention.

 

Base

The support onto which printing plates are fixed and is usually metal.

 

Base Film

The foundation material onto which the film positives are stripped for making printing plates and becomes obsolete and was used primarily in the stripping process.

 

Base Line

Term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points, etc.

 

Base Size

Standard size of paper stock; even though it is required size may be smaller or larger. It is different for types of paper, book and cover weight. Got an odd sized job that needs finishing? Call us at 816-257-1919.

 

Basis Weight

Basis weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to standard size for that particular paper grade and varies based on coated, uncoated, book and cover.

 

Bed

The steel flat table of a cylinder printing press upon which the type or die sits during the printing process.

 

Boldface

Type characteristic using bold or thicker lines.

 

Bible Paper

A thin but strong paper (opaque).

 

Binder’s Board

A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback or case back binding of books.

 

Binding

Various methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book. Used on a spine. We’re experts in Wire-O, Spiral Wire, Saddle-Stitching and Perfect Binding.

 

Black

Ink that is one of the process colors. Also known as K in CMYK.

 

Blanket

On offset presses a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber to transfer the impression from the plate onto the impression cylinder.

 

Blanket to Blanket Press

A printing method in which there are two blanket cylinders thought which a sheet of paper is passed and printed on both sides. Used on smaller presses or duplicators.

 

Bleed

Extra ink area that crosses the trim line.

 

Blind Emboss

Raising of the image on paper using a die and counter die with no ink involved.

 

Blind Embossing

Raising of images that are not inked or gold leafed.

 

Blind Folio

Page number not printed on page.

 

Blind Image

A problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses it ink receptivity and fails to print.

 

Block

Illustrations or line are etched into zinc or cooper plates mounted to wood and used in letterpress printing.

 

Blow-up

Enlargement of photos, copies or line art.

 

Blue-Line

Photographic proof made from flats for checking accuracy, layout and imposition before plates are made. Becoming obsolete.

 

Boldface

Type that has a heavier stroke that makes it more bold.

 

Bond

A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17 x 22 inches. Used in business correspondence.

 

Book

A general classification to describe papers used to print books bookweight; its standard size is 25 x38 inches. A printed work that contains mare than 64 pages. Can be bound in a number of ways.

 

Bristol Board

A board paper of various thickness; having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing.

 

Brocade

A heavily embossed paper.

 

Brochure

A pamphlet to convey or promote message. Post Press has enhanced countless brochures with our advanced finishing services.

 

Bronzing

A printing method whereby special ink is applies to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect. Particles will come off on hand or in printers.

 

Buckle Folder

A piece of binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper.

 

Bulk

A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.

 

Bullet

A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.

 

Burn

A term used in plate making to describe applying light to “burn” the image onto plate.

 

Burnish

A term used for the process of “rubbing down” lines and dots on a printing plate.

 

Caliper

The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils. Thin or thick, Post Press can work with almost any type of sheet.

 

Camera Ready

A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction. Can be manually created or created on computer.

 

Caps & Lowercase

Instructions in the typesetting process, that indicate the use of a capital letter and the rest of the letters in lower case.

 

Caps & Small Caps

Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.

 

Case

The thick cover of a hardbound book.

 

Case Binding

Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

 

Casing In

the process of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.

 

Cast Coated

A paper that is coated with clay and then pressure dried using a polished roller which gives an enamel like hard extra high gloss finish.

 

Chalking

Print on paper where the absorption is so great that it breaks up ink image creating loose pigment dust.

 

Chancery Italic

The roots of italic design.

 

Chase

Frame of steel, or cast or wrought iron, in which images are locked up for printing and is used in letterpress or cylinder presses.

 

Combination Stamp

Process where embossing and foil stamping are done at the same time.

 

Cutting

Process of cutting paper with guillotine cutter. Post Press Specialties is equipped with polar cutting systems with pre-jogging and stacking and 3 programmable cutters.

 

Cyan (C)

One of the ink colors (blue) that is used as a process color (CMYK).

 

Die Cut

Cutting shapes or non-square or rectangular shapes out of paper using die-cutting equipment. Post Press recently acquired a 57” Young Shin Die-Cutter that can do almost anything. Call us at 816-257-1919 and we’ll be happy to show you what this impressive machine can do.

 

Digital Printing

Printing done from digital file.

 

Distribution Rollers

The rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink train in presses.

 

Docutech

Xerox machine that is high end production copier and only does black/black using toner.

 

Dog Ear

A dog Ear occurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the folds an indentation forms. It may look like a small inverted triangle. This usually happens when folds are too tight.

 

Dot

The smallest individual element of a halftone which can be expressed in %.

 

Dot Gain

A Dot Gain occurs due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge or spread.

 

Draw-down

Test of ink color before going to press. Solid stripes on paper to show what ink will look like.

 

Drier

Describes additives to ink which hasten the drying process.

 

Drill

The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding which uses a bit that turns with sharp edges. Have a drilling job? Post Press can help.

 

Drop Shadow

A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of a shadow from light.

Ductor Roller

The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.

 

Dull Finish

Any matte finished paper that has very little reflection.

 

Dummy

A representation of copy and art elements to be reproduced to duplicate the finished product and has no ink present, which is also called a comp.

 

Duotone

A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo with use of accent color.

 

Duplex Paper

Paper which has a different color on each side.

 

Dutch Cut

Odd number of cuts or pieces placed in different directions.

 

Dutch Cutting

A process of cutting many sheets from the same parent sheet in which the smaller sheets have a different grain direction.

 

Eggshell Finish

Finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Toothy feel or rough.

 

Electronic Composition

Composition of text, graphics and pictures.

 

Electronic Proof

Proof generated from the computer file directly -Inkjet, dye sublimation, digital halftone.

 

Elliptical Dot

Dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.

 

Em

A unit of measurement equaling 12 points.

 

Embossed

Paper finishing where a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry which also applies to using die and counter die to impress image into substrate. Post Press Specialties has 4 Hot-foil stamping machines.

 

Emulsion

A light sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound.

 

Enamel

A term that describes coating on paper.

 

Engraving

A printing process whereby images are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, the etched areas act as small well to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is injected into the paper creating raised images.

 

Etch

Producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.

 

Exposure

That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive material.

 

Fan Fold

Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan. Have you seen our Chameleon hi-speed folder/gluer? Ask us for a tour.

 

Felt Finish

The smoother side of paper usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers.

 

Felt Side

It is the top side of the sheet in the paper making process that does not lie on the Fourdrinier wire.

 

Finish

The surface quality of paper.

 

Fit

The registration of the print on the substrate.

 

Flush Cover

Book or booklet etc. having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.

 

Foil Stamping

Process where foil is transferred via pressure and heat. We’ve become one of the Midwest’s leading binderies for foil stamping.

 

Fold Marks

Markings that show where folds should occur which are located outside of a trimmed area.

 

Folder

Machine used to fold signatures or brochures. We have 2 Mold marathons with final fold and bump-n-turn capabilities.

 

Folio or Page Number

Number of pages at top or bottom,

 

Font

Characters that make up a typeface and size.

 

Form Rollers

The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.

 

Four Color Printing

Usually means process printing (CMYK).

 

Free Sheet

Paper that is free from wood pulp.

 

Full Color

Term that represents printing in CMYK.

 

Gang or Ganging

Grouping multiple jobs or forms on same press sheet.

 

Gather

To assemble sections into single copies of complete sets for binding. Need collating or gathering done? Post Press Specialties can help with their advanced high-speed vacuum feed collating lines.

 

Ghosting

Noticeable difference in density of ink in certain areas next to larger solid areas due to ink rollers running out of capacity to carry enough ink.

 

Gas Ghosting

Image from one side of sheet showing through to other side due to ink gasses being trapped.

 

Gilding

Treating Gold leaf edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.

 

Graduated Screen

An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one % to another gradually.

 

Grain

Direction of fibers in a sheet of paper.

 

Gripper

Metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through each unit of the printing press. Not to be confused with Ronald Reagan’s character, “The Gipper”.

 

Gripper Edge

The side of the paper that the grippers hold to run through the press.

 

Gate Fold

Fold where both outside edges fold into the middle thus creating a gate. Need single or double gate folds? Call Post Press Specialties at 816-257-1919.

 

Guillotine Cutter

Machine that trims paper excess.

 

Gutter

Space between pages in the printing sheet.

 

Hairline Register

Very tight register which is the thinnest of the standard printers’ rules.

 

Halftone

Tone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines to make a image or picture.

 

Halftone Screen

Ruled right-angled lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to the halftone dot image required for printing.

 

Head Margin

The margin between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.

 

Hickies

Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, in ink or in paper.

 

High Bulk Paper

Stock that is thicker than normal in relation to its basis weight.

Highlights

The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration.

 

Hot Melt

An adhesive used in the binding process.

 

House Sheet

This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.

 

IBC

Inside back cover.

 

IFC

Inside front cover.

 

Illustrator

Graphic Software.

 

Image Area

Area of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.

 

Image Setter

High resolution output device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.

 

Imposition

Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly once folded they are in paginated order.

 

Impression

Product resulting from one cycle of printing machine where image is transferred to paper.

 

Indicia

Printed information to replace stamp.

 

Ink Fountain

The well which holds ink and distributes in to the inking rollers.

 

Ink Holdout

Ability of paper to not allow absorption on ink into paper.

 

Inkjet

Type of proofing process or low quality production machine.

 

Italic

Type that is slanted body forward.

 

Jacket

The paper cover that goes over a hardbound book.

 

Jog

To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are even.

 

Jogger

Vibrating platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.

 

Kerning

The measure of space between letters.

 

Kiss Cut

A light die cut that cuts through first layer but leaves base substrate uncut.

 

Laid Finish-

A parallel lined paper that has a handmade look.

 

Layout

A dummy that shows the placement of all the elements.

 

Leading

Space between the lines of type.

 

Letterpress

Printing that utilizes ink raised surfaces to create the image. The imprint is made by pressure. Letterpress is one of the services Post Press Specialties does best. kiss-cutting, perforating, embossing and numbering are just a few of the letterpress services we provide.

 

Line Copy

Any copy that can be reproduced with out the use of halftone screens.

 

Linen

A paper that copies the look and texture of linen cloth.

 

Lithography

The process of printing the utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.

 

M Weight

The actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.

 

Magenta (M)

Also one of the primary colors (CMYK).

 

Make Ready

Process of adjusting final plate on the press to put work in register.

 

Match Print

Photographic proof made from color flats to form a composite proof showing color quality this is now done digitally.

 

Matte Finish

A coated paper finish that has very little reflection of light or dull finish.

 

Mechanical

A term used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations.

 

Moiré

An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of halftone screens.

 

Mottle

A term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.

 

Natural

Papers that have a color similar to cream, off white or ivory.

 

Negative

Film that contains the same images s the original print, except that all colors and shades are reversed, becoming obsolete.

 

OBC

Outside back cover.

 

OFC

Outside front cover.

 

Offset

The most commonly used printing method. The image is transferred from plate to blanket to impression cylinder to paper. Thereby the image is being offset.

 

Offset Paper

A term used for uncoated paper stock. Post Press Specialties can work with all kinds of offset sheets.

 

Offshore Paper

Any papers made outside the US and Canada.

 

On Demand Printing

Printing done to meet immediate demand needs.

 

Onionskin

A light bond paper used for typing. It is very uncommon these days.

 

Opacity

Ability to prevent two sided printing from showing side to side.

 

Opaque

A quality of paper that allows little light to pass through.

 

Opaque Ink

Ink that completely covers through which light cannot shine through.

 

Over Run

Surplus of quantity ordered.

 

Overhang Cover

A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.

 

Overprinting

Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.

 

Parallel Fold

All folds are parallel to each other. If you have job that requires parallel folds, give Post Press Specialties a call at 816-257-1919.

 

Parchment

A hard finished paper that emulates old paper.

 

Parent Sheet

A sheet that is larger than the cut stock.

 

Perf Marks

Markings usually dotted lines showing where the perforations should occur.

 

Perfect Binding

A term used to describe the binding process where the book makes a squared spine. Perfect Binding is one of things Post Press does best.

 

 

Perfecting Press

A printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass.

 

Perforating

Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper to facilitate tearing along a desired line. Call Post Press, Kansas City’s largest bindery for your next perforating job.

 

Pica

Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch.

 

Picking

When the tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs; this is referred to as picking.

 

Plate

Reproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing an image that can be transferred.

 

Plate Cylinder

The cylinder on the printing press on which the plate is mounted.

 

Plate Making

Making a printing plate.

 

Plate Setter

Machine that images plates directly from digital file.

 

Point

A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.

 

PPI

Pixel per inch.

 

Premium-

Any paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.

 

Primary Colors

In printing the four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.

 

Process Inks

CMYK, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black that create images in full color.

 

Proof

A representation of the job given to the customer that should represent final product-this is the last stage before plating.

 

Quark

Graphics Software

 

Rag Paper

Paper with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.

 

Ragged Lift

The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.

 

Ragged Right

The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.

 

Ream

500 sheets of paper

 

Reducer

Any substrate that reduces the tack of ink.

 

Register

The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.

 

Register Marks

Any cross marks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.

 

Right Angle Fold

A term that denotes fold that are 90 degrees to each other. Just one of the folds Post Press Specialties can do.

 

Rub Resistance

Measure of inks ability to resist rubbing or scuffing.

 

Rubine

A pigment redder than true magenta and is used primarily in mixing other ink colors.

 

Saddle Stitching

Stitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center which is only used with folded sections in four page increments. Post Press Specialties can do your next saddle stitch job efficiently and cost effectively.

 

Safety Paper

A paper that can not be altered or tampered with easily.

 

Satin Finish

An uncoated paper very similar to matte paper.

 

Score

Light indentation to help folding or tearing. Reduces or prevents cracking of folds. Want to score? Call Post Press at 816-257-1919.

 

Screen Angles

The placement of halftone screen in printing to avoid unwanted moiré patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45deg, magenta 75deg, yellow 90deg, and cyan 105deg.

 

Scumming

Ink film on paper due to lack of water balance.

 

Self Cover

A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal (guts) sheets.

 

Sheetwise

The printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides on press.

 

Short Run Printing

Denotes runs with small quantities.

 

Show Through

When the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side and can be helped by using a more opaque sheet.

 

Side Guide

The guides on the sides of the press that position the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front guides. This controls the sheet position sideways for registration.

 

Side Stitching

Stitching where the staples pass through the paper gathered upon each other and are closed on the underside.

 

Signature

Printed sheet that consists of a number of pages of a book, paginated so they will fold and bind together as a section of a book-The printed sheet after folding.

 

Slitting

A term to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets by the cutting wheels of a folding machine.

 

Spine

Back edge of a book.

 

Spiral Bind

A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side which allows the book to lay flat. Spiral wire binding is a specialty of Post Press.

 

Spot Color

Area printed in a second color, other than black.

 

Spread

The amount of increase in size of image to create ink trap.

 

Static Neutralizer

Device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static build up on paper as it passes through the press to enable it run faster.

 

Step and Repeat

A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it in a set measurement.

 

Stet

A proofreader’s symbol that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction is actually ok.

 

Stock

A term for paper or other material to be printed. We have worked with virtually all paper stocks.

 

Super Calendaring

A machine that produces a high finished paper surface that is extremely smooth and exceptional for printing.

Synthetic Papers

Substrate not made from wood or cotton pulp. Usually petroleum based plastic materials.

 

Tack

Adhesive quality of inks.

 

Tag

A dense, strong uncoated paper stock.

 

Text

High quality uncoated paper.

 

Thermography

Raised printing used to simulate engraving, which is printed offset with resin powder and heat that melts the resin on the ink.

 

Tint

A solid screen that contains all the same % size dots.

 

Toner

Type of solid ink particles that can be black or color and used on some types of short run digital machines.

 

Tooth

The rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique (Not smooth).

 

Trapping

Spreading or overlapping of colors or images into each other to not show white.

 

Trim Marks

Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.

 

Uncalendared

Papers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring press.

 

Varnish

A clear shiny material used to add gloss to printed pieces. (Also available in satin or dull).

 

Vellum

A finish of paper that is rough, and has a degree of tooth.

 

Vignette

Fade to white of illustration (A photo or illustration etc., in which the tones fade gradually away).

 

W&B

An abbreviation for work and back (Reference sheetwise/Does not change gripper).

 

W&F

An abbreviation for work and flop (Changes gripper).

 

W&T

An abbreviation for work and turn (Does not change gripper).

 

Washup

Cleaning a particular in from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.

 

Watermark

A translucent mark that is embossed during the papermaking process.

 

Web

The roll of paper that is used in web printing.

 

Web Press

Cylinder printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed.

 

Widow

A single word or two left at the right end or a paragraph.

 

Wire Stitching or Stapling

To fasten together sheets, signatures, or sections with wire staples. We’re experts on wire-stitching and stapling. Call us at 816-257-1919.

 

Writing Paper

Another name for bond paper.

 

Xerographic Paper

Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.

 

Yellow (Y)

Also one of process colors (CMYK)

 

Z Fold

Brochure that is folded in the pattern of a “Z”. If you have a complex folding job, Z-fold or otherwise, call Post Press Specialties at 816-257-1919.